ارزیابی الگوی بزرگنمایی لرزه‌ای سطح زمین در ساختگاه‌های واقع بر سازه‌های زیرزمینی جعبه‌ای شکل

نوع مقاله : Articles

نویسندگان

1 گروه مهندسی عمران، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد زنجان

2 دانشگاه خوارزمی

چکیده

مطالعه‌ی حاضر به بررسی اثر حضور سازه‌های زیرزمینی جعبه‌ای شکل منفرد و دوقلو بر تغییرات پاسخ لرزه‌ای سطح زمین می‌پردازد. برای این منظور با انتخاب یک رویکرد عددی تفاضل محدود اعتبارسنجی شده، ابتدا تأثیر پارامترهای مهم تأثیرگذار بر مسئله از جمله عمق تونل، انعطاف‌پذیری پوشش تونل، محتوای فرکانسی تحریک و فاصله تونل‌ها، مطالعه شده است. در ادامه بر مبنای شتاب‌نگاشت‌های واقعی زلزله، اثر حضور سازه‌های زیرزمینی جعبه‌ای شکل بر طیف پاسخ لرزه‌ای در سطح زمین مورد ارزیابی قرارگرفته و نتایج با طیف پاسخ در شرایط میدان آزاد مقایسه شده است. نتایج این تحقیق نشان می‌دهد که وجود سازه‌های زیرزمینی جعبه‌ای شکل تأثیر محسوسی بر تغییر پاسخ سطح زمین دارد به‌طوری‌که می‌تواند تا حدود دو برابر موجب بزرگنمایی پاسخ لرزه‌ای سطح زمین نسبت به حالت میدان آزاد شود. این موضوع به‌خصوص در مورد سازه‌های زیرزمینی دوقلوی سطحی مشهودتر است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Seismic Site Amplification Pattern Caused by Underground Box-Shaped Structures

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hamid Alielahi 1
  • Mohammad Saeed Ramezani 2
1 Department of Civil Engineering, Zanjan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Iran
2 Faculty of Engineering, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Introduction
Nowadays, it is highly conspicuous that the problems of urban transportation are failed to be resolved on the ground, thus the best and quickest remedy is using underground facilities in metropolises. Especially, in congested urban areas, shallow depth underground structures (tunnels, subways and metro stations) are frequently built. Besides, the geometrical aspects, these box-shaped structures have some characteristics that are different from those of the mined circular tunnels. For example, the dimension of the box-type tunnels is, in general, greater than those of circular tunnels. This characteristic along with the potential of large seismic ground deformations that are typical for shallow soil deposits increase interaction effects of these shallow tunnels with their surrounding medium and adjacent structures [1]. Therefore, investigating the effect of these shallow underground structures on the seismic response of surface structures is of great importance [2-5].  In the current study, the effects of single and twin box-shaped underground structures on the amplification patterns and seismic response of ground surface are parametrically examined.
 
Methodology
In this research, using a finite difference approach, the effects of parameters such as; depth, horizontal space, lining stiffness of tunnels and input excitation frequency on the seismic response of the ground surface have been parametrically studied. Numerical analyses are performed through using the FLAC 2D software. Moreover, analytical results of Luco and De Barros [6] and numerical result of Yiouta-Mitra et al. [7] are chosen for the validation of the numerical approach. 
To investigate the variations of frequency-dependent ground surface response, first, Ricker wavelets have been utilized as seismic excitations. Then the model subjected to seven real earthquake records and accordingly accelerations response spectra (spectral accelerations) have been presented.
 
Results and Discussion
This section exhibits the important results obtained from the parametric study. The results demonstrate that in the presence of twin tunnels, the maximum value of amplification always occur in center of the ground surface (x/a=0) while for case of single tunnel it occurs in the sides. Moreover, it can be deduced that the presence of the twin tunnels creates more serious condition with respect to the single tunnel. Furthermore, several real earthquake excitations were selected for further investigation about the effect of box-shaped tunnels on the ground surface acceleration. The results show that the presence of box-shaped underground structures has considerable influence on the seismic amplification patterns of the ground surface and characteristics of acceleration response spectrum. This issue is particularly evident in the case of shallow and twin underground tunnels. The main reasons of this occurrence may be related to significant wave sweeping effects due to the waves scattering by the shallow structures, which increase interaction effects of the shallow tunnels with their surrounding medium and adjacent structures. 
Summary and Conclusion
In the current study, the effects of single and twin box-shaped underground structures on the amplification patterns and seismic response of ground surface are parametrically examined. For this purpose, using a verified numerical approach, the effects of crucial parameters, such as depth, horizontal spacing, lining stiffness of tunnels and frequency content of wave excitations on the ground surface response are evaluated. In the next stage, seven real earthquake excitations are selected for further investigation about the effect of box-shaped tunnels on the seismic response spectra of ground surface and the results are compared with the free-field condition. The main important conclusions drawn from the present study are as follows:
1. The box-shaped underground structures have considerable influence on the seismic amplification of the ground surface and characteristics of acceleration response spectrum.
2. The presence of twin tunnels creates more serious condition with respect to single tunnel.
3. The presence of the tunnel resulted in deamplification in short periods (high frequencies) and amplification in long periods with respect to the free-field model.
4. The significant wave sweeping effects due to the waves scattering by shallow structures, increase interaction effects of the shallow tunnels with their surrounding medium and adjacent structures.
References

Wang, JN. (1993) Seismic Design of Tunnels: A Simple State of the Art Design Approach. Parsons Brinckerhoff Inc., New York.
Alielahi, H., Kamalian, M., and Adampira, M. (2015) Seismic ground amplification by unlined tunnels subjected to vertically Propagating SV and P waves using BEM. Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 71, 63-79.
Alielahi, H. and Adampira, M. (2016) Site-specific response spectra for seismic motions in half-plane with shallow cavities. Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 80, 163-167
Alielahi, H. and Adampira, M. (2016) Effect of twin-parallel tunnels on seismic ground response due to vertically in-plane waves. International Journal of Rock Mechanics & Mining Sciences,85, 67-83
Alielahi, H., Kamalian, M., and Adampira, M. (2016) A BEM investigation on the influence of underground cavities on the seismic response of canyons. Acta Geotechnica, 11(2),391-413.
Luco, J.E. and De Barros, F.C.P. (1994) Dynamic displacements and stresses in the vicinity of a cylindrical cavity embedded in a half space. Earthquake Engineering and Strucutral Dynamics, 23, 321-340.
Yiouta-Mitra, P., Kouretzis, G., Bouckovalas, G., and Sofianos, A. (2007) Effect of underground structures in earthquake resistant design of surface structures. Dynamic response and soil properties. Geo-Denver: New Peaksin Geotechnics.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Box-Shaped Underground Structures
  • Seismic Amplification
  • Response Spectra
  • Twin Tunnels
  • Finite difference method
  • parametric study
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