اثر تنش کولمب بر مدل های وابسته به زمان احتمال وقوع زلزله در زاگرس

نوع مقاله : Articles

نویسندگان

1 مؤسسه آموزش عالی آل‌طه، تهران

2 پژوهشکده زلزله شناسی، پژوهشگاه بین‌المللی زلزله‌شناسی و مهندسی زلزله، تهران

چکیده

به دلیل برهم‌کنش چشمه های لرزه زا، وقوع یک زلزله احتمال وقوع زلزله های آینده را در منطقه تحت تأثیر قرار می دهد. در این مطالعه احتمال وقوع زلزله های با بزرگای Mw≥5.8 بر اساس مدل های وابسته به زمان بی پی تی و ویبل برای دوره 10، 30 و 50 ساله در بخشی از منطقه زاگرس ارزیابی شده است. ابتدا تغییرات تنش کولمب ناشی از برهم-کنش زمین لرزه ها در هر گسل محاسبه شده است. سپس اثر این تغییر تنش در احتمال وقوع زلزله های مشخصه5 برحسب هر دو اثر دائمی (تغییر زمان) و گذرا (نرخ- حالت) تغییرات تنش کولمب ارزیابی شده است. نتایج نشان می دهد که مدل ویبل احتمال بالایی از وقوع زلزله را نسبت به مدل بی پی تی در منطقه تخمین زده است. در نظر گرفتن اثرات تغییر تنش زلزله ها، موجب تغییر در نتایج احتمالات شرطی به‌دست‌آمده از هر دو مدل بی پی تی و ویبل شد، به‌طوری‌که در برخی چشمه های لرزه زا موجب افزایش و در برخی دیگر موجب کاهش نتایج احتمال شد. بیشترین احتمال به‌دست‌آمده مربوط به گسل کازرون است که این امر نشان دهنده‌ی فعالیت لرزه ای بالای این گسل است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Coulomb Stress Effect on the Time-Dependent Models of Earthquake Occurrence Probability in Zagros

نویسندگان [English]

  • Samaneh Kazemi 1
  • Hamid Zafarani 2
1 AleTaha Institute of Higher Education, Tehran, Iran
2 International Institute of Earthquake Engineering and Seismology (IIEES), Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

This work aims at the assessment of the occurrence probability of future earthquakes, taking into account Coulomb stress changing based on the time-dependent models. The influence of Coulomb stress changing on the occurrence probability of characteristic earthquakes is computed, taking into account both permanent (clock advance) and transient (rate-and-state) Coulomb perturbations. Calculations are based to the time elapsed since the last characteristic earthquake on a fault and to the history of the following events. For this purpose, earthquakes with magnitude Mw≥5.8 are applied. Then, by using the BPT and the Weibull models, the occurrence probability of characteristic earthquakes for the 10, 30 and 50 year periods are estimated. The Zagros region included in the rectangle of coordinates 27-31.2 N° and 49.6-53.4 E° and faults such as Kazerun, Borazjan, Sabzpushan, Qir, Karebas and parts of MFF and ZFF were selected. For calculating coulomb stress, Coulomb 3.3 software was used.
Time-dependent models called renewal models, have been applied to investigate shocks on single faults [1-2] or in seismic sources that include, in addition to the main fault where the characteristic earthquake is generated [3-4]. In the renewal processes, the conditional probability of the next large earthquake, given that it has not happened yet, varies with time and is small shortly after the last one and then increases with time. In recent years, many models for earthquake occurrence probability were proposed. This study used BPT and Weibull models. Weibull distribution is one of the most widely used lifetime distributions in a wide range of engineering applications [5-6]. The Weibull distribution has also been widely used for specifying the distribution of earthquake recurrence times [7] and follows from both damage mechanics and statistical physics. For computing probabilities with Weibull distribution, γ parameter is needed that is the shape parameter of the distribution, defined as the inverse of the coefficient of variation [8].
Adding Brownian perturbations to steady tectonic loading produces a stochastic load-state process. Rupture is assumed to occur when this process reaches a critical-failure threshold. More recently, the Brownian Passage Time (BPT) model, assumed to adequately represent the earthquake recurrence time distribution, has been proposed to describe the probability distribution of inter-event times [9]. One of the important properties of this model is that with increasing time since the last event, the BPT hazard rate decreases toward a non-zero constant asymptote [9]. The expected recurrence time Tr is the necessary piece of information. Besides, a parameter as the coefficient of variation (also known as aperiodicity) α , defined as the ratio between the standard deviation and the average of the recurrence times, is required. In this study, Cv values 0.5 and 0.75 were used for individual faults as Yakovlev et al. [10].
As we are dealing mainly with events, for which details as fault shape and slip heterogeneity are not known, rectangular faults with uniform stress shop distribution are assumed [11]. For modeling faults and calculating stress changes due to earthquakes, fault parameters like strike, dip, rake, rupture dimensions and receiver fault mechanism are necessary for all the triggering sources. Moreover, the rupture length and rupture width are required. In most cases in this study, these two parameters are indistinctive, so Wells and Coppersmith [12] empirically relations were used for computing rupture length and width.
Characteristic earthquake yearly rate was computed by using the relation given by Field et al. [13]. Then by inversing obtained amounts, the mean recurrence time of earthquakes could be computed. The effect of Coulomb stress change on the probability for the future characteristic event can be considered from two viewpoints [14]. The first idea is that the stress change can be equivalent to a modification of the expected mean recurrence time, Tr to the T'r, the second view point works on the idea that the time elapsed since the previous earthquake is modified t to the t'r by a shift proportional to ΔCFF. According to Stein et al. [14], both methods yield similar results nearly. In this study, the alternative between the first and the second view has been decided in favor of the second one. By substitution of t' into the hazard function, the probability modified by the permanent effect (P-mod) of the subsequent earthquakes were calculated.
Khodaverdian et al. [15] calculated shear strain rate for the most of the faults in the Iranian Plateau. These values have been used for the calculation of tectonic stressing rate 𝜏̇. For computing the probability obtained from the sum of the permanent and the transient effect (P-trans), we would have aftershock duration (ta) and Aσ parameters. The obtained amount of aftershock duration by using window algorithm for aftershocks according to Gardner and Knopoff method is 1.4 year. Accordingly, by using ta and tectonic stressing rate, Aσ parameter was obtained for each fault.
Taking into account the effects of earthquakes stress change, caused changing the results of conditional probabilities that obtained from both models, so that in some of the seismogenic sources increased probability result and in others decreased. The result shows that the probabilities obtained from the sum of the permanent and transient effect are generally smaller than the conditional probabilities obtained from the permanent effect only. This is due to the assumption of constant background rate made for the application of the rate-and-state model. The maximum obtained probability is related to the Kazerun fault that shows the high seismic activity of Kazerun fault. The uncertainties are treated in the parameters of each examined fault source, such as focal mechanism, mean recurrence time, magnitudes of earthquakes, epicenter coordinates and coefficient of variation in the statistical model. Taking into account these uncertainties by Monte Carlo technique will lead to more accurate results.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Probability
  • Coulomb Stress
  • Time-Dependent Model
  • Weibull
  • BPT
  1. Console, R., Falcone, G., Karakostas, V., Murru, M., Papadimitriou, E., and Rhoades, D. (2013) Renewal models and coseismic stress transfer in the Corinth Gulf, Greece, fault system. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, 118(7), 3655-3673.
  2. Asayesh, B.M. and Hamzehloo, H. (2015) The Coulomb Stress Changes Due to Rigan Earthquakes and their Aftershocks. Bulletin of Earthquake Science and Engineering, 2(2), 1-10 (in Persian).
  3. Nouri, B., Hashemi, S.N., Asayesh, B.M. (2017) Study of the seismicity rate and Coulomb stress changes associated with the April 9th, 2013 Kaki-Shonbe earthquake (Mw=6.3) and the spatial distribution of aftershocks. Earth and Space Physics, 43(2), 339-353 (in Persian).
  4. Sorkhvandi, S., Zafarani, H. and Ghalandarzadeh, A. (2016) Effect of Coulomb Stress Changes on Time Dependent Model in East of Iran. Bulletin of Earthquake Science and Engineering, 2(4), 1-10 (in Persian).
  5. King, G.C.P., Stein, R.S., and Lin, J. (1994) Static stress changes and the triggering earthquakes. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 84(3), 935-953.
  6. Console, R., Murru, M. and Falcone, G. (2010) Perturbation of earthquake probability for interacting faults by static Coulomb stress changes. Journal of Seismology, 14(1), 67-77.
  7. Parsons, T. (2004) Recalculated probability of M≥7 earthquakes beneath the Sea of Marmara, Turkey. Journal of Geophysical Research, 109(B5), 1-21.
  8. Wesnousky, S.G., Scholz, C.H., Shimazaki, K., and Matsuda, T. (1984) Integration of geological and seismological data for the analysis of seismic hazard: A case study of Japan. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 74(2), 687-708.
  9. Nishenko, S.P., and Buland, R. (1987) A generic recurrence interval distribution for earthquake forecasting. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 77(4), 1382-1399.
  10. Papazachos, B.C. (1992) A time and magnitude predictable model for generation of shallow earthquakes in the Aegean area. Pure and Applied Geophysics, 138(2), 287-308.
  11. Boschi, E., Gasperini, P., and Mulargia, F. (1995) Forecasting where larger crustal earthquakes are likely to occur in Italy in the near future. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 85, 1475-1482.
  12. Zafarani, H., and Ghafoori, S.M.M. (2013) Probabilistic Assessment of Strong Earthquake Recurrence in the Iranian Plateau. Journal of Earthquake Engineering, 17(3), 449-467.
  13. Weibull, W. (1951) A statistical distribution function of wide application. Journal of Applied Mechanics, 18(3), 293-297.
  14. Meeker, W.Q. and Escobar, L.A. (1991) Statistical Methods for Reliability Data Using SAS Software. John Wiley and Sons, New York.
  15. Rikitake, T. (1982) Earthquake Forecasting and Warning. D. Reidel, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.
  16. Yakovlev, G., Turcotte, D.L., Rundle, J.B., and Rundle, P.B. (2006) Simulation-based earthquake recurrence times on the San Andreas fault system. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 96(6), 1995-2007.
  17. Matthews, M.V., Ellsworth, W.L. and Reasenberg, P.A. (2002) A Brownian model for recurrent earthquakes. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 92(6), 2233-2250.
  18. Kagan, Y.Y. and Knopoff, L. (1987) Random stress and earthquake statistics: time dependence. Geophysical Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society, 88(3), 723-731.
  19. Console, R., Murru, M., Falcone, G. and Catalli, F. (2008) Stress interaction effect on the occurrence probability of characteristic earthquakes in Central Apennines. Journal of Geophysical Research, 113(B08313).
  20. Toda, S. (1998) Stress transferred by the 1995 Mw=6.9 Kobe, Japan, shock: Effect on aftershocks and future earthquake probabilities. Journal of Geophysical Research, 103(B10), 24543-24565.
  21. Stein, R., Barka, A., and Dieterich, J. (1997) Progressive failure on the North Anatolian fault since 1939 by earthquake stress triggering. Geophysical Journal International, 128(3), 594-604.
  22. Akinci, A., Murru, M., Consol, R., Falcone, G. and Pussi, S. (2014) Implications of earthquake recurrence models to the seismic hazard estimates in the marmara region, turkey. Second European Conference on Earthquake Engineering and Seismology, Istanbul, Aug 25-29.
  23. Berberian, M., Petrie, C.A., Potts, D.T., Asghari Chaverdi, A., Dusting, A., Sardari Zarchi, A., Weeks, L., Ghassemi, P., and Noruzi, R. (2014) Archaeoseismicity of the mounds and monuments along the kazerun fault (western Zagros, sw Iranian plateau) since the chalcolithic period. Iranica Antiqua, XLIX, doi: 10.2143/IA.49.0.3009238.
  24. Baker, C., Jackson, J. and Priestley, K. (1993) Earthquakes on the Kazerun Line in the Zagros Mountains of Iran: strike-slip faulting within a fold and thrust belt. Geophysical Journal International, 115(1), 41-61.
  25. Centroid Moment Tensor catalogue. Available online: www.globalcmt.org/CMTsearch.html [2016, March 3].
  26. Elliott, J.R., Bergman, E.A., Copley, A.C., Ghods, A.R., Nissen, E.K., Oveisi, B., Tatar, M., Walters, R.J. and Yamini-Fard, F. (2015) The 2013 Mw 6.2 Khaki-Shonbe (Iran) Earthquake: insights 1 into seismic and aseismic shortening of the Zagros 2 sedimentary cover. Earth and space science, 2, 435-471, doi:10.1002/2015EA000098.
  27. Talebian, M. and Jackson, J. (2004) A reappraisal of earthquake focal mechanisms and active shortening in the Zagros mountains of Iran. Geophysical Journal International, 156(3), 506-526.
  28. Maggi, A., Jackson, J.A., Priestley, K. and Baker, C. (2000a) A re-assessment of focal depth distributions in southern Iran, the Tien Shan and northern India: do earthquakes really occur in the continental mantle? Geophysical Journal International, 143(3), 629-661.
  29. Ni, J. and Barazangi, M. (1986) Seismotectonics of the Zagros continental collision zone and a comparison with the Himalayas. Journal of Geophysical Research, 91(B8), 8205-8218.
  30. Wells, D.L. and Coppersmith, K.J. (1994) New empirical relationships among magnitude, rupture length, rupture width, rupture area, and surface displacement. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 84(28), 974-1002.
  31. Khodaverdian, A., Zafarani, H. and Rahimian, M. (2015a) Long term Fault slip rates, distributed deformation rates and forecast of seismicity in the Iranian Plateau. Tectonics, 34(10), 2190-2220.
  32. Gardner, J.K., and Knopoff, L. (1974) Is the sequence of earthquakes in southern California, with aftershocks removed, poissonian? Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 64(5), 1363-1367.
  33. Field, E.H., Johnson, D.D. and Dolan, J.F. (1999) A mutually consistent seismic-hazard source model for Southern California. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 89(3), 559-578.